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Презентация к исследовательской работе “Viruses of endophytic and pathogenic forest fungi”

Автор (ы)

Жиленкова Е.С.

Аффилиация

ВГЛТУ им. Г.Ф. Морозова, г.Воронеж

Научный руководитель

Маклакова Елена Альбертовна

Аннотация

Fungi that reside inside living organisms without causing visible symptoms during at least one part of their life cycle are generally known as endophytic fungi. These fungi are hyperdiverse and ubiquitous, existing in all major habitats—marine, plant, animal, lichen, and soil. Therefore, it is not surprising that endophytes perform various functions. For example, endophytes enhance the host’s defenses against herbivores and increase resistance to various stressors such as drought.

Viruses that multiply in fungi are commonly known as mycoviruses. The first mycovirus was discovered when the cause of the fungal death was investigated, after which the knowledge base about mycoviruses gradually expanded. Currently, hundreds of mycoviruses have been discovered, with most of the known species having a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, and a small part having either a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) or a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome.

According to ICTV, mycoviruses are classified into seven families, but many species are not included in the current classification system, which is based on genomic structure, virion structure, amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the presence or absence of a coat protein.

Micoviruses are not considered infectious by themselves (with a few exceptions), since they do not have an extracellular route of infection and are spread exclusively through spore formation and hyphal conjugation.

The estimated number of fungal endophyte species is constantly increasing as environmental sampling and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies evolve and become cheaper for researchers. Recent estimates indicate that there are between 1.5 and 10 million fungal endophyte species, and scientists have stated that 30-80% of fungal species can be infected with mycoviruses. These estimates of the vast number of fungal endophyte species suggest that the recent discoveries of new mycoviruses are just the tip of the iceberg, as most mycoviruses are still undetected.

The origin of mycoviruses remains a controversial topic dominated by two main hypotheses.

The first hypothesis for the origin of mycoviruses is the ancient co-evolution hypothesis, which suggests that viruses and fungi evolved together over time.

The second hypothesis suggests that mycoviruses evolved from plant viruses and occupied the niche of infection of plant-associated fungi.

Mycovirus infections of fungi have a variety of biological and environmental consequences. Some mycoviruses reduce the virulence of the host fungus (hypovirulence), which can make the fungus less harmful to plants, while other mycoviruses have been shown to increase the virulence of the fungus host (hypervirulence). Thus, depending on the mode of action, mycoviruses can be used as potential bioagents for combating fungal diseases. As a result, in the near future, we may see many cases where biological control – through the hypovirulence of pathogenic fungi – is used to contain diseases in woody plants.

The use of mycoviruses to control diseases of woody plants caused by pathogenic fungi is an important research topic, as this measure can significantly reduce the use of control chemicals that have adverse effects on the environment. Environmentally sound management, also called biological control or biological control, has been touted as a way to eradicate the use of chemical fungicides.

This review presents a variety of evidence as to why researchers should continue to study endophytic fungal mycoviruses to build a knowledge base of virus-endophyte interactions. Since our understanding of fungal endophyte viruses and forest pathogens is only in its infancy, now is the ideal time to develop sequencing-based tools to detect and identify further mycoviruses.

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